'many – perhaps all – of the glosses are copies: they were not invented by their scribes. [...] Even the vernacular glosses [...] show signs of copying – errors in transmission that must go back to at least one earlier exemplar, and quite possibly more to an even earlier one.' (Bronner, 2013, p. 6). The ms. dates are based on VAQ, but also see https://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-FF-00004-00042/1; The glosses were added later, but were copied from one or more earlier exemplars. This is the basis of the proposed lower and upper bounds for the text/gloss.